MODAL VERBS

Publicado: 9 abril, 2013 en Grammar

 MODAL VERBS

Must and HAVE TO: MUST: It is personal. 

OBLIGATION. The past form of must is “had to” and the negative is “wasn´t or weren´t allowed to”.  Ex: We mustn´t talk during the exam.

MUSTN´T: prohibition.  “you mustn’t smoke in the restaurant”.

CERTAINTY. The past for deduction is “must+ have+ past participle” and the furute is “ must be going to+ infinitive”

Ex:  That must be John coming up the stairs.

The flight is late; the heavy rain must have caused delays.

They bought lots of paint, they must be going to decorate.

ADVICE. (must/ mustn´t)

 Ex: You must stop smoking.

HAVE TO: impersonal ( we use it to talk about facts not our personal feelings)

OBLIGATION:  You have to wear uniform (It is a rule)

Negative: don´t have to. It is important to bear in mind that “don´t have to” means lack of obligation ( you can do it or not)

Ex: You don´t have to bring your laptops. (But if you want you can do it).

 

OUGHT TO AND SHOULD They are used to say that something seems likely because it is logical or normal. Ex: It is six o´clock. He ought/ should be in the office.ADVICE OR SUGGEST THAT SOMETHING IS A GOOD IDEA.

Ex: You ought to/ should tell her how you feel.

 

WEAK OBLIGATION.

Ex: People should/ ought to wait in the queue.

NECESSITY

Ex: Sports clothes should be light and allow you to move easily.

The negative forms are: ought not / oughtn’t

Should not / shouldn´t

The past form are: Ought to/ should + have+ past participle

Ex: You ought to have/ should have let us Know you were living there.

Will and Would:
  • To make polite invitations and request.

Ex:  Will/ would you sit there please?

–          Will and won´t describe habits and characteristic behavior in the present. Ex: He will watch TV all evening.

–          Would and wouldn´t are used to talk about past habits and characteristics. Ex; Every morning she would seit in the garden reading her newspaper.

Activity:

Complete the sentences below using the modals in the box

Must       mustn´t                   must have                   ought to        shall              shouldshouldn´t have          should have                     will                  would

Ex: Shall I carry some of your heavy bags for you?

a. All pupils …………………………………… wear school uniform at all times in school and on their way to and from school.

b. We are going to be doing a lot of hill-walking and so you ……………………………………… bring strong outdoor shoes.

c. I wonder where they can be. They ……………………………….. been here by now. They ………………………… missed their train.

d. After school we used to go to the sweet shop on the corner where everyone ……………………………. By a penny’s worth of sweets or liquorice.

e. You ………………………………… smoke in the garage forecourt.

f. He´s always late for work. He …………………………………….. catch an earlier train.

g. …………………………… you take this man to be your lawful wedded husband?

h. Jo looked very upset. You ……………………… criticized her in public like that.

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